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1. What is a land survey?
Surveying or land surveying is the technique and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership or governmental purposes. To accomplish their objective, surveyors use elements of geometry, engineering, trigonometry, mathematics, physics and law.
2. What are the basic types of surveys?
* As Built Survey: Location survey of any improvements and existing structures on subject property for purchase or refinance. Missing corners are not set.
* Boundary Survey: A survey of the boundary of property according to the description Office of Lt Governor (OLG) Map. Missing corners are replaced. Interior improvements such as buildings are not located. However, generally, improvements along the boundary affecting use of title or property such as fences, drives and sheds are located. A map showing the boundaries is prepared for the customer.
* Topographic Survey: This survey shows lines of elevation (contour lines) and other physical features pertaining to the property. Typical use of this survey map is for site design and construction.
* Subdivision Survey: This division of a parcel of land into two or more smaller lots. This survey map must be approved and recorded at the Cadastral Office at the Lt. Governor Office.
* Flood Elevation Certificate: An Elevation Certificate is an important tool that documents your building’s elevation. It is a part of the National Flood Insurance Program. It is used to certify building elevations in order to:
Support a request of Letter of Map Amendment (LOMA) of Letter of Map Revision based on fill (LOMR- F)
Determine the proper flood insurance rate for the building. If you live in a high-risk flood zone, you should provide an Elevation Certificate to your insurance agent to obtain flood insurance and ensure that your premium accurately reflects your risk.
* ALTA/ASCM Survey: An American Land Title Association Survey based on the 2012 minimum standard detail requirements. This is a very detailed survey often required by lending institutions. The request for this survey must be in writing and be included with all of the deeds and easements affecting the property, along with the deeds to adjoining properties. A list of items to be located as noted in the ALTA/ACSM publication can be included.
3. When do I need a Survey? A survey is needed when:
* Property is to be bought, sold or refinanced.
* Improvements are to be made such as enclosures or additions to existing structures.
* Boundaries or property corners are in question.Encroachments or discrepancies are suspected.
* Property is to be subdivided or partitioned into smaller parcels.
4. What is an encroachment? Real property that extends onto adjacent land owned by someone else. For example, if someone builds a shed at the edge of their property without knowing the actual property boundaries, the shed may extend onto land that they do not own. Having a professional survey performed before building near the property boundary is a good idea so you can avoid any possible encroachment issues.
5. What is an easement?
An easement allows another person the right to use your land for a specific purpose. The most usual easements are those granted to public utility or telephone companies to run lines on or under your private property and to neighboring houses to use a common driveway to give access to their home.